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  • Basic problems and methods of deep mineral exploration
    XUE Jianling, PANG Zhenshan, CHENG Zhizhong, CHEN Hui, JIA Ruya
    The contradiction between the economic and social development and the restriction of resources and environment in China is becoming more and more prominent.It is an inevitable trend of mineral exploration to go deep and ask for resources in the depth.On the basis of discussing the importance and necessity of deep prospecting,this paper expounds the concept of deep prospecting,summarizes the present situation of deep prospecting,combs the difficulties of deep prospecting,and puts forward the thinking and method of deep prospecting:the problem of studying deep prospecting from the essence of mineralization,the study of metallogenic geological bodies to determine the prospecting direction,the study of metallogenic structure and metallogenic structure surface to predict the location of orebodies,the study of metallogenic characteristics to provide prediction basis,comprehensive geology,geophysical exploration,chemical exploration,drilling methods to detect deep orebodies.Indirect ore prospecting is the main method,while direct ore prospecting is the auxiliary method.Some suggestions are put forward to strengthen the deep prospecting work,such as giving full play to the role of theoretical guidance,innovating,developing and promoting the deep prospecting technology suitable for Chinese characteristics,and making full use of modern information technology such as big data.
    2020  .  39(8):    1125-1136    [摘要](117)    [PDF](149)
  • Element migration regularity during hydrothermal alteration in the Xiejiagou gold deposit,Eastern Shandong Province
    DU Zezhong, CHENG Zhizhong, YAO Xiaofeng, YU Xiaofei, CHEN Hui, LI Shaohua, BAO Xinglong
    The Xiejiagou gold deposit is located between the Jiaojia fault zone and the Zhaoyuan-Pingdu fault zone in northwest Jiaodong.Based on detailed field geological observations and laboratory study,the authors identified the alteration types and spatial zoning of the Xiejiagou gold deposit.In this paper,the authors systematically collected rock samples of different alteration types,and carried out geochemical analysis of rock elements.The Isocon method was used to analyze the element migration law during hydrothermal alternation and its constraint on the properties of ore-forming fluids and mineral precipitation.The alterations of the gold deposit are beresitization of steep quartz veins as well as beresitization and K-feldspathization from the center to both sides;they are K-feldspathization,beresitization,and ferritic lithology with steeply dipping quartz veins from early to late period.The K-feldspathization shows that K-feldspars and biotite replaced the plagioclases and hornblende in the Linglong biotite granite,respectively,the potassium obviously migrated in,silicon slightly migrated in,calcium and magnesium migrated out,and iron migrated slightly out.The beresitization is superimposed on the K-feldspathization,which mainly demonstrates that plagioclase,K-feldspar and biotite were destabilized in the solution containing H+ and HS-,and were replaced by sericite and quartz.Iron,magnesium,and calcium moved in,potassium,sodium,and silicon moved out.From the K-feldspar stage to the beresitization stage,the fluid changed from alkaline to acidic,and the migration form of Au also gradually changed from a chloride complex to a sulfur-hydrogen complex.With the continuous evolution of the ore-forming fluid,the ore-forming fluid and the surrounding rock continuously reacted,and the chemical properties of the ore-bearing hydrothermal fluid continued to change to promote the precipitation of gold.
    2020  .  39(8):    1137-1152    [摘要](85)    [PDF](87)
  • U-Pb age of post-ore dykes in the Xiejiagou gold deposit and its constraints on ore-forming age,Northwest Jiaodong,China
    YAO Xiaofeng, CHENG Zhizhong, DU Zezhong, LIU Kun, BAO Xinglong, LI Shaohua
    The northwest Jiaodong peninsula is one of the largest gold ore concentration areas in China,in which gold resource reserves exceed 4000 tons.Most of the deposits in the area are controlled by Sanshandao,Jiaojia and Zhaoping faults.The Xiejiagou gold deposit is located in the west and the footwall of Zhaoping fault,controlled by NWW- and NEE- secondary faults,which is different from the feature of the deposits which occur in Zhaoping fault such as Dayinggezhuang and Xiadian.Based on the phenomenon of existence of two kinds of dike,i.e.,quartz diorite porphyry and granodiorite,which cut though mineralization and alteration in the tunnel,the authors conducted LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating for the dikes.It is found that the U-Pb ages are 118.0±1.1 Ma and 118.4±0.9 Ma respectively,which suggests that the lower limit age of mineralization is 118 Ma in the Xiegagou gold deposit,and gold mineralization in northwest area of Jiaodong peninsula had been mainly completed by 118 Ma.It is inferred that regional mineralization was more probably related to diorite type intrusives between the formation of Guojialing and Weideshan intrusives.
    2020  .  39(8):    1153-1162    [摘要](79)    [PDF](78)
  • The “trinity” geological model for ore prospecting and prediction of the Dashui gold mine in Maqu County,Gansu Province
    PU Wanfeng, LI Hongrui, YUAN Zhen, YANG Zhuang, LIU Bin
    Based on the "trinity" prospecting theory proposed by Ye Tianzhu et al.,this paper summarizes the metallogenic geological bodies,metallogenic structures,metallogenic structural planes and characteristics of mineralization through the study of geological processes,metallogenic structures,mineralization alterations and various kinds of metallogenic information of the Dashui gold mine.Then the "trinity" metallogenic model was constructed,which provides a geological model for the next prospecting and prediction.The metallogenic geological body of the Dashui gold deposit is Late Triassic Geer inclusive rock mass and derived veins.The metallogenic structure is controlled by NW-trending regional faults,late NE-trending and nearly NS-trending faults.The main metallogenic structural planes are mainly fault structures,contact faces of different lithologies,and paleokarst structure.The characteristics of mineralization are mainly silicification,hematitization,limonitization and calcitization.The metallogenic fluids belonged to the system of H2O-NaCl-CO2,and the main components of fluid gas were CO2 and H2O.Calcite,limestone carbon and oxygen isotopes and pyrite sulfur isotopes indicate that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from magma.The deposit was formed in the middle-shallow depth,and the gold mineralization occurred in a relatively reduced environment.
    2020  .  39(8):    1163-1172    [摘要](77)    [PDF](101)
  • 3D characteristics of primary halo and deep prospecting prediction in the Zaozigou gold deposit,Hezuo City,Gansu Province
    TANG Lei, LIN Chenggui, CHENG Zhizhong, JIA Ruya, LI Hongrui, LI Kangning
    In order to evaluate the prospecting potential and direction in the depth of the Zaozigou gold deposit,the authors selected 61 drill holes in the Zaozigou gold deposit as the research objects,conducted multivariate statistical analysis and 3D spatial distribution characteristics study of the primary halo data along No.70 exploration line with thick orebodies exposed.The results are as follows:① Correlation analysis and cluster analysis indicate that the elements most closely related to Au are As and Ag.② The morphological characteristics and spatial distribution characteristics of the primary halo show that the ore- and halos- forming elements exhibit a clear zonation.The primary halo is characterized by the front halo elements of As,Sb,Hg,the near-ore halo elements of Au,Ag,Cu,Pb,Zn and the rear halo elements of W,Mo,Bi.③ Based on the 3D interpolation analysis of the primary halo data,a 3D model of each element primary halo in the Zaozigou gold deposit was constructed.The anomaly model of indicator elements such as Au,As,Ag and the anomaly accumulation ratio of As+Sb/Au+Ag show that the anomaly scale is small when the anomaly is shallower than 2500 meters.In the depths greater then 2500 meters,the anomaly scale seems to be larger and larger toward the depth,and the extension is stable.Combined with the spatial distribution characteristics of anomaly elements,it is proposed that the place along No.78 line-No.85 exploration line of the Zaozigou gold deposit still has great prospecting potential in the depths greater than 2000 m.
    2020  .  39(8):    1173-1181    [摘要](73)    [PDF](81)
  • Geochemical anomaly characteristics and mineral potential mapping in Milashan area of Tibet
    MOU Nini, SUN Xiang, WAN Xiuquan
    The analysis of geochemical anomalies derived from stream sediment geochemical data is a fundamental task in mineral prospecting.In this study,median+2 median absolute deviations(median+2MAD)and concentration-area(C-A)were applied to analyze geochemical anomaly delineation of Cu and Cu+Au+Ag association from factor analysis of stream sediment geochemical data in Milashan area of Tibet.The results show that the C-A fractal method is a favorable means for identifying the anomaly.Cu anomaly provides more information than Cu+Au+Ag associated anomaly.Furthermore,the S-A analysis was used to decompose the Cu element and distinguish the background from anomaly components,which provides a more accurate basis for delineating the anomalous area.Six anomalous areas have been classified into classes A(Qulong and Jiama),B(Dabu,Lakange and Chengba)and C(Puxiong and Jiabuna).Class A anomalous areas containing two largest porphyry copper deposits in the Gangdise belt are characterized by great anomalous intensity and largest anomalous area,and have great potential for periphery prospecting.Class B prospective areas contain three large and medium-sized copper deposits.Particularly,the Chengba anomalous area has similar anomalous intensity to Qulong and Jiama anomalous areas and thus has good prospecting potential.Copper deposits have not been discovered in Class C anomalous areas,but it deserves exploration work for identifying the mineral potential.
    2020  .  39(8):    1182-1190    [摘要](70)    [PDF](84)
  • The Au-Cu polymetallic mineralization system related to intermediate to felsic intrusive rocks and the prospecting prediction in Xiahe-Hezuo area of Gansu,West Qinling orogenic belt
    LI Kangning, JIA Ruya, LI Hongrui, TANG Lei, LIU Bochong, YAN Kang, WEI Lele
    The distribution of magmatic rocks and mineral deposits in Xiahe-Hezuo area has a zoning characteristics:The intrusive rocks in northern Xiahe-Hezuo fault have larger scales and are mainly batholiths and stocks.The mineralization in intrusive rocks is dominated by medium and high temperature elements,such as Cu,Au,W,Mo,Pb and Zn,and is controlled jointly by the contact zone at the edge of rock mass and the fracture.The intrusive rocks to the south of Xiahe-Hezuo fault are smaller and are mainly small stocks and dikes.The mineralization in intrusive rocks is dominated by medium and low temperature elements and is controlled by the fracture.Geochemical characteristics in this area show that the intrusive rocks have the dual characteristics of magnesium diorite and TTG rock suite,and structurally belong to crust-mantle structure that is "thermal shell" + "thermal mantle";therefore,the metallogenic condition in this area is extremely favorable. S,H,O and other stable isotope characteristics show that the ore-forming material was mainly derived from the hydrothermal fluid in the mantle magma and,in the later period,there occurred the participation of atmospheric precipitation.The Au-Cu polymetallic ore-forming system in Xiahe-Hezuo area was associated with medium-acid intrusive rocks.Therefore,exploration should be focused on searching for remote low temperature hydrothermal gold and antimony deposits in the shallow part and searching for porphyry and skarn deposits in the depth to the south of Xiahe-Hezuo fault,due to the shallow denudation degree.However,the prospecting should be based on porphyry and skarn deposits to the north of Xiahe-Hezuo fault characterized by a high denudation.
    2020  .  39(8):    1191-1203    [摘要](111)    [PDF](76)
  • The ore-controlling structural characteristics of Yangshan gold deposit and its enlightenment for the exploration of gold deposits in Mian-Lue tectonic mélange belt,West Qinling Orogen
    SU Qiuhong, JIA Ruya, LIU Xin, WANG Hui
    The Yangshan gold deposit in Wenxian County is located in the triangle area north of the Yangtze plate,south of the China-Korea plate,and east of the Songpan-Garze fold system,and belongs to the south belt of the West Qinling orogenic belt.Since the deposit is located in the tectonic melange belt with extremely complicated metallogenic structure,it has brought great difficulties to the exploration work of the deposit in the past,and researchers even once failed to submit an exploration report.In order to find out the style of metallogenic structure,the authors,based on the data of prospecting engineering in the mining area and a large number of structural elements,proposed a new metallogenic structure model by using structural statistical analysis and stress analysis methods combined with a large number of field observations.It is held that it is located at the eastern turning point of Getiaowan-Caopingliang complex anticline in the forward fault-fold belt of the nappe structural system of Anchanghe-Guanyinba thrust fault in Wenxian County,Mianlue tectonic mixed rock belt.The orebodies are controlled by folding wings toughening brittle fracture fault fracture zone and the wedge type,with the typical "netted" tectonic melange tectonic style characteristics,and are generally NNE-trending.The strikes of orebodies are diverse in north,south or horizontal direction.Thus,the problem of ore-control structure and orebody circle connection of the Yangshan gold deposit is solved,which provides a good reference for gold exploration in Mian-Lue tectonic melange belt.
    2020  .  39(8):    1204-1211    [摘要](61)    [PDF](69)
  • Metallogenic epoch and genetic study of the Tianziping gold deposit,West Qinling orogenic belt
    LIU Yonggang, YANG Yuping, LI Jianjun, LIU Wenlong, XUE Jinniu, SU Qiuhong, WU Jianfu, HU Xiaolong
    The Tianziping gold deposit in West Qinling orogenic belt is an altered rock type gold deposit with gold-bearing quartz veinlets and quartz stockworks.The authors selected hydrothermal zircon in the gold-bearing quartz vein for metallogenic epoch research.Some of the zircons were corroded with no rings or weak rings.These zircons also have high Th,U,Pb content and Th/U ratios,indicating that these zircons are hydrothermal zircons.LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of these zircons yielded a concordant age of 110±7 Ma,which is contemporaneous with the continental napping event in this area in late Early Cretaceous,which should be an important metallogenic epoch of the gold deposit.The authors hold that a tectonic altered rock type gold mineralization occurred in Late Yanshanian period in the Chaijiazhuang gold concentration area,which was related to the contemporaneous large-scale tectonic movement.
    2020  .  39(8):    1212-1220    [摘要](59)    [PDF](63)
  • Lithofacies characteristics of the Longtan Formation and its control of gold mineralization in the Shuiyindong gold deposit,Southwestern Guizhou Province
    YANG Chengfu, LIU Jianzhong, GU Xuexiang, WANG Zepeng, CHEN Faen, WANG dafu, XU Liangyi, LI Songtao
    The Shuiyindong superlarge gold deposit,located in southwestern Guizhou Provence,has a high-grade layered orebody in the Upper Permian Longtan Formation(P3l).It is controlled by specific impure carbonate rocks and favorable lithology.In this paper,the authors summarized constraints on the sedimentary facies and rock characteristics of the Longtan Formation.Based on a detailed and systematic petrographic comparative analysis of the host rocks and wall rock,the authors hold that the Longtan Formation consists of a set of shallow-water delta peat bogs and coastal tidal flat lagoon sediments characterized by rich organic matter.Limestone interlayers in Longtan Formation may represent transgressive events of different periods.The Emeishan basalt magma eruption changed Wujiapingian epoch sedimentary paleogeographic pattern and composition of terrigenous clastic rocks in the formation of the Longtan Formation and developed sediments related to volcanic activity;iron dolomite in the ore might have been a thermal alteration product of volcanic clastic material;organic matter and basaltic volcanic fragments in impure bioclastic limestone was an important controlling factor for the abnormal enrichment of gold to form high-grade orebodies.When looking for this type of gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou Provence,researchers should focus on the evaluation of the favorable lithological unit.
    2020  .  39(8):    1221-1232    [摘要](73)    [PDF](73)
  • A discussion on the genetic model of the copper deposit in Lala copper orefied,Sichuan Province
    SHEN Heming, GONG Lingming, CHEN Hui, LIN Lujun, DENG Yuanwen, ZENG Li
    The tectonic environment of the Lala copper orefield is located in the Sichuan-Yunnan passive continental margin rift system of Huili County,Sichuan Province,and its mineralization is controlled by the tectonic-magmatic evolution of the Huili-Dongchuan rift trough.The orebody is located in the Na-rich spilite-keratophyre series of the Paleoproterozoic Hekou Group.The values of the δ34S of metal sulfide in the ore are distributed in the range of -1‰~4‰,and are close to zero,which have characteristics of tower distribution,indicating that sulfur mainly came from volcanic eruption.The fluid type of the deposit is similar to that of the volcanic effusive sedimentary deposit,the inclusions are basically Ⅰ-type inclusions in early quartz sulfide and Ⅱ-type and Ⅲ-type inclusions in late calcite quartz sulfide;I-type inclusions reflect the main metallogenic stage of volcanic eruptive-sedimentary period,while Ⅱ-type and Partial Ⅲ-type inclusions reflect terminal fluid miscibility,which indicates that the deposit has undergone late reformation.According to isotopic dating data,the metallogenic process of the deposit can be roughly divided into three stages:volcanic spouting(1600~1800 Ma),metamorphism and deformation(1000~1100 Ma),and hydrothermal superposition modification(770~900 Ma).It is preliminarily considered that the genetic type of deposits about the Lala copper orefield belongs to marine volcanic rock type copper deposit,but different volcanic eruption cycles of Estuary Group have different mineralization patterns.
    2020  .  39(8):    1233-1246    [摘要](67)    [PDF](80)
  • Protolith reconstruction and its significance in the search for the ore-hosting metamorphic rock series in Hekou Group,the Lala copper orefield,Sichuan Province
    TAO Wen, XUE Jianling, CHEN Hui, CHENG Zhizhong, PANG Zhenshan, LIN Lujun, GONG Lingming, ZHANG Jili
    The Lala copper deposit in Sichuan is one of the large copper-rich deposits in China.The ore bodies occur in the metamorphic rock series of the Hekou Group,and have typical stratabound characteristics.Therefore,the protolith reconstruction of this metamorphic rock can better define the genesis of the deposit and also provide directions for the next ore prospecting in this area.A series of geological and geochemical studies of its ore-bearing metamorphic rocks indicate that the original rocks are a set of argillaceous siltstone-spilite rock associations which were formed in an intracontinental rift of passive continental margin.The protoliths of biotite quartz schist,muscovite quartz schist and two-mica quartz schist are pelitic siltstone,while the original rocks of quartz albite,metavolcanic breccia and metavolcanic tuff are spilite.Based on the stratabound characteristics of stratiform as well as lenticular orebodies and diagenetic-metallogenic ages available,it is concluded that the deposit exhibits early VMS copper mineralization.Compared with the rock types of host rocks of different types of VMS deposits,Besshi type is considered to be of the early copper mineralization type.At last,the interface between mafic volcanic rocks and siliceous clastics in this region should be the direction of further prospecting work.
    2020  .  39(8):    1247-1257    [摘要](67)    [PDF](75)
  • Characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields and deep prospecting implications in Changtuxili area,Inner Mongolia
    MA Yixing, Lü Zhicheng, YAN Tingjie, ZHANG Shihui, ZHAO Jinzhong, HE Peng, LIU Zujian, QIN Yi
    The Changtuxili area in Inner Mongolia is located on the west slope of the southern section of the Da Hinggan Mountains metallogenic belt.Its metallogenic conditions are superior.It is found that the Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits in this area are related to the invasion of Mesozoic volcanic apparatus and intermediate acid magma.However,due to the thick coverage and low exploration level,it is difficult to determine the distribution of volcanic apparatus and the spatial location of intrusive rock mass only relying on the surface geological work,which is not conducive to the deep exploration breakthrough in the area.Through the fracture analysis of the magnetic survey data,the authors revealed the radial structure characteristics that may be volcanic apparatus,and inferred 18 structures.Through the 1:20000 gravity survey,residual anomaly extraction and power spectrum analysis of the gravity field,a low gravity anomaly that may be caused by the concealed intrusive rock mass was found,and the approximate depth of the field source was calculated to be about 1002.5 m.The results indicate the distribution of the potential hidden volcanic apparatus and the spatial location of the intrusive rock mass,which provides an important reference for the further exploration and drilling verification work in this area.
    2020  .  39(8):    1258-1266    [摘要](65)    [PDF](72)
  • Zircon U-Pb age,geochemistry and Hf isotope characteristics of Shimensi granite porphyry in northern Jiangxi Province and its constraint on mineralization
    ZHANG Zhihui, HU Bojie, ZHANG Da, XIONG Guangqiang, ZHU Xinyou, JIA Wenbin, GONG Xiaodong
    The mineralization of tungsten polymetallic ore in the Dahutang tungsten orefield is closely related to the Yanshanian granitic magmatism.The Yanshanian granite porphyry is closely related to the hydrothermal cryptoexplosion breccia and is an important ore-forming geological body in this area.In order to study the rock-forming age,genesis,evolution and formation background of the rock mass as well as to discuss the relationship between the rock mass and mineralization,the authors carried out a systematic study in the aspects of petrology,major and trace elements,zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope for the Shimensi granite porphyry.The research results show that the rock-forming age of granite porphyry is 154.36±0.83 Ma,the granite porphyry has high-silicon(the content of SiO2 is 71.90%~76.53%),peraluminous nature(the content of Al2O3 being 12.76%~14.76% and the A/CNK value being 1.25~1.39)and thus belongs to high-potassium-calcium-alkaline series(the content of K2O is 2.58%~5.42%).The granite porphyry is enriched in LILEs and depleted in HFSEs.The REE content is low(49.38×10-6~72.36×10-6),LREE/HREE(9.83~16.76)and(La/Yb)N(16.43~39.45)are high,and the granite porphyry has obviously negative δEu anomaly(0.27~0.65).The rock type of granite porphyry is S-type.The εHf(t)values of zircons are -23.6~-2.9 and the two-stage model ages are 1.39~2.70 Ga,indicating that the Shimensi granite porphyry may be a product of partial melting of ancient crust.The source rock magma is mainly clay-rich material.During the evolution of magma,the separation and crystallization of mafic minerals,ilmenite and plagioclase occurred,and no significant separation and crystallization of apatite occurred.Combined with the Mesozoic metallogenic tectonic background in this area,there existed two important mineralization events in the Jiuling-Zhanggongshan uplift zone:one occurred at about 150 Ma,as a result of the diagenetic mineralization under the extrusion tectonic background of the subduction of the Pacific plate;the second occurred at about 135 Ma,as a result of tungsten polymetallic mineralization under the background of the lithosphere stretching thinning.
    2020  .  39(8):    1267-1284    [摘要](72)    [PDF](66)
  • Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of the granites from Bayanwula area and their geological significance
    LIU Jialin, LIU Wusheng, YU Hang, ZHANG Zhanming
    The Bayanwula area is located in the middle part of the Erlian Basin,eastern part of the Central Asian orogenic belt,and hosts some sand-type uranium deposits.In this paper,the authors present two LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions for granites from the study area,which show that the emplacement ages of these granitic rocks are 292±3 Ma and 288±2 Ma.Theses ages are consistent with those of granitic and volcanic rocks occurring in the Bayinbaolige horst of the Bayanwula area.The data obtained by the authors and previously published data indicate that a magma belt consisting of Late Carboniferous-Early Permian granitic and volcanic rocks were developed in the Bayinbaolige horst of the Bayanwula area.Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show that two granite samples have εHf(t)values of +10.6 to +18.2,which are similar to those of the Early Permian granitic rocks located on the Bayinbaolige horst of the study area,indicating that the granites were derived from the partial melting of juvenile lower crust.Integrated with geological data,this study indicates that the formation of the sand-type uranium deposits developed in the upper member of the Saihan Formation was associated with tectonic-magmatism processes that happened in the eastern part of the Central Asian orogenic belt during Phanerozoic,which provided many optimum conditions for these sand-type uranium deposits.
    2020  .  39(8):    1285-1295    [摘要](77)    [PDF](83)

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