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  • Cretaceous dinosaur tracks from Maling Mountain of Xinyi City, Jiangsu Province:From tiger to carnivorous dinosaur and from folklore to paleontology
    XING Lida, NIU Kecheng, LOVKLEY Martin G, GUO Ying, TANG Yonggang, PERSONS W Scott Ⅳ and RAN Hao
    Four enigmatic depressions, traditionally referred to as "tiger's paw traces" and "human footprints" from "Li Cunxiao Fighting Tiger" site of the Maling Mountain area in Xinyi City of Jiangsu Province are here interpreted as dinosaur tracks belonging to the Early Cretaceous Tianjialou Formation of the Dasheng Group. Only one of the "tiger's paw traces" at the largest depth preserves recognizable digit tracks, suggesting it is a left theropod track, with posterior medial hallux trace, forming part of a linear trackway with steps of~50cm. Alternatively, the track may be a small sauropod right pes track forming part of a trackway in which the left side footprints were not registered. Malingshan tracksite demonstrates another case of how dinosaur tracks influenced Chinese folklore.
    2019  .  38(6):    905-910    [摘要](129)    [PDF](331)
  • The discovery of Mid-Holocene transgressive strata in Xiongxian County, Hebei Province
    YUAN Lupeng, WANG Yong, YAO Peiyi, JIANG Nan, DONG Jin, TIAN Fei and TANG Wenkun
    Holocene transgression in the Gulf of Bohai Sea was an important event of global climate change in the Late Quaternary. Previous studies have shown that Holocene transgression on the west coast of the Bohai Bay has penetrated into Wen'an County. The authors discovered a new species of genus Sinonovacula in 8th layer along the 15BZ02 profile in Xiongxian County of Hebei Province,30 kilometers east of Wen'an County. These new species are perpendicular or oblique to the formation,and inhabited in the medial tide and low tide of the intertidal zone of the estuary. Besides,marine-ostracoda Tanella opima were discovered in this layer,which shows that sea water transgressed into Xiongxian areanearly 6970~6670cal a BP in Middle Holocene.
    2019  .  38(6):    911-915    [摘要](60)    [PDF](43)
  • Stratigraphy and sporopollen assemblages of well Bei 32 from the Nantun Formation in the Hailar Basin, Inner Mongilia
    HAN Gang, CAO Yang, ZHANG Wenjing, WANG Jingyan, XUE Yunfei and BAO Li
    Form bottom to top,the Nantun Formation may be divided into two sporopollen assemblages. The Piceaepollenites sp.-Pinuspollenites sp.-Abietineaepollenites sp. is distributed in the first member of the Nantun Formation, whereas Concentrisporites sp.-Piceaepollenites sp.-Pinuspollenites sp. assemblage lies in the second member of Nantun Formation. Among the pteridophytic components,most genera of pteridophytic spores bear strong aspects of Early Cretaceous,such as Cicatricosisporites, Densoisporites, Triporoletes, and Pilosisporites. The Nantun Formation is thus considered to be Aptian-Albian in age, and it is important in reconstructing the stratigraphic sequence and guiding the exploration of the Hailar Basin where a lots of sporopollen fossils have been discovered.
    2019  .  38(6):    916-921    [摘要](42)    [PDF](28)
  • The discovery of conodonts from the Lichaiba Formation in Xiongdong Village, Baoshan area, western Yunnan Province, and its geological significance
    YAN Chunbo, ZHANG Baomin and YANG Bo
    This research is mainly focused on the conodonts sequence of "Lichaiba Formation" in Xiongdong area. Detailed investigation has revealed five conodont zones, which are in ascending order of Pterospathodus pennatus procerus Zone, Kockelella walliseri Zone, Ancoradella ploeckensis Zone, Polygnathoides siluricus Zone, and Polygnathus nothoperbonus Zone. Because of the recognition of conodont Polygnathus nothoperbonus from Bed 8, it is argued that the strata should belong to Lower Devonian, named Xiangyangsi Formation. To sum up, the strata of Xiongdong section range from Wenlock Stage of the Silurian to Emsian Substage of Lower Devonian, with the lack of 8~10 conodont zones from the upper part of Ludlow Stage of the Silurian to the lower part of Emsian Substage of Lower Devonian between them. These data indicate that the area was affected by regional tectonism, resulting in the faulted contact relationship in the Silurian-Devonian interval. As for stratigraphic thickness, Xiongdong section is a highly concentrated section compared with other typical sections which are equally situated in the west of Yunnan Province.
    2019  .  38(6):    922-929    [摘要](40)    [PDF](27)
  • Upper Devonian conodonot and brachiopod biostratigraphic in Quanzhou area, Guangxi
    YIN Jiayi, KOU Xiaohu, GUO Jungang, SONG Bowen, AI Chengzhi, HOU Yafei, WANG Jiaxuan and TANG Junyang
    The Devonian strata are developed in northeastern Guilin area, where there exist large quantities of fossils, which are of great significance for studying the Devonian biostratigraphy in southern China. The authors collected and studied conodonts and brachiopods from Changlongjie Formation, Xikuangshan Formation and Menggongao Formation in the Middle-Upper Devonian strata of the study area and obtained 104 pieces of conodonts and 34 brachiopod fossils. 20 species of 21 genus of conodonts as well as 9 species of 6 genus of conodonts were identified. According to the important conodonts fossils, 8 conodont zones were set up from the bottom to the top in the study area:Icriodus brecis Zone, Schmidtognathus hermanni-Polygnathus cristatus Zone, Schmidtognathus wittekindtii Zone, Palmatolepis linguiformis Zone, Palmatolepis triangularis Zone, Palmatolepis rhomboidea Zone, Icriodus cornutus Zone, Palmatolepis gracilis manca-Rhodalepis polylophodontiformis Zone, which indicates that Changlongjie Formation, Xikuangshan Formation and Menggongao Formation correspond to the upper part of Frasnian stage, the bottom part of Famennian stage and the middle and upper part of Famennian stage, respectively. In addition, the authors indicated Frasnian stageFamennian stage boundary in the study area according to the first appearance of Palmatolepis triangularis, 2 combinations were established in the study area:Cyrtospirifer Zone and the Yunnanella-Tenticosififer Zone, which correspond to Palmatolepis falsiovalis Zone, Palmatolepis linguiformis Zone, Palmatolepis marginifera.
    2019  .  38(6):    930-949    [摘要](40)    [PDF](28)
  • The discovery of Silurian Yuanbaoshan Formation graptolite in Wulanshangde area of Alxa Left Banner, Inner Mongolia, and its geological significance
    WANG Aishun, MA Yunfei, ZHANG Baoyan, WU Lijun, ZHANG Yunxue, XING Zhiqiang, LIU Mingjun, YANG Fuguang, LIANG Zhibao, JIA Yongqi, ZHAO Jiajia, ZHANG Qiang and SUN Zechen
    A puzzling stratum is identified as Permian Shuangbaotang Formation,which is outcropped in NE direction for 770km2 on both sides of Hariaoribuge sag in northern Hangwula Mountain of Alxa Left Banner. However, the summarized lithology, rock association and sequence characteristics of strata is in contradiction with the definition, geological characteristics and regional change of Shuangbaotang Formation named by Inner Mongolian lithostratigraphic researchers. In this study, 1:50,000 regional mineral geological survey adopted modern sedimentology theory and sequence stratigraphy working method to study rock association,basic sequence, sedimentary structure and sedimentary environment. The authors divided the strata into three lithologic section-level geological units. According to the first discovery of graptolite and the invading contact of biotite granodiorites in the Late Devonian (U-Pb/379±2.9Ma), the strata age should be Early Silurian and it was changed into Silurian Yuanbaoshan Formation.The Devonian regional deformation and metamorphic process produced low-grade metamorphism and schistositilization deformation and formed NE-trending compound syncline structure. Then it experienced superimposition ofstructural deformation and formed closed-reverse fold. The establishment of Silurian Yuanbaoshan Formation plays an important role in stratigraphic subdivision and regional tectonic evolution study.
    2019  .  38(6):    950-958    [摘要](47)    [PDF](31)
  • Carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation of carbonate rocks in the fault zone of Wenchuan earthquake:Implications for the mechanism of fault healing
    GUO Jin, YAN Xiaobing, LI Zihong, CHEN Hui and HU Guirang
    The outcrop and microscopic structure analysis of Zhaojiagou section at Leigu Town in Beichuan area of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone revealed that multi-phase veins crisscross and the breccia has been cemented.The isotope analysis of carbonate minerals related to fault rocks shows that the source of a large amount of dolomite in the fault breccia and veins should be the Mgrich fluid in the fault zone,and the carbon and oxygen isotopes exhibit significant differentiation.The δ18O and δ13C values of breccia are more close to values of surrounding rocks of limestone, and the veins and matrix exhibit heavy isotope losses. It is found that the δ13C values of the coseismic thermal decomposition model is obviously higher than the real values and the water-rock interaction model can form this differentiation result, as shown by comparison of these two possible models.Therefore, the surface water recirculation caused by the upwelling of deep fluids may be the significant cause of the fault rapid healing after earthquake. The coseismic rupture and inter-seismic healing form a complete fault system.
    2019  .  38(6):    959-966    [摘要](48)    [PDF](27)
  • The Amojiang fault zone and Mojiang M5.9 earthquake in 2018 in southern Yunnan Province
    CHANG Zufeng, MAO Zebin, MA Baoqi and DAI Boyang
    Field investigation shows that fault mouths are developed on the planation surface Ⅲ and river terrace 4 in the Amojiang fault zone, and below them there is no indication of fault landforms.Structural rocks dated by SEM are Early Pleistocene in age and are cemented compactly or half consolidated,and a few fault gouges dated by ESR as 549±54ka and developed on the fault plains and Middle-Upper Pleistocene deposits covering the faults have not been displaced or deformed tectonically. All these phenomena suggest that the fault zone was mainly active in Early-Middle Pleistocene. The 2018 Mojaing M5.9 earthquake occurred on the western branch of the Amojiang fault zone,and the long azimuth of isoseismal lines of the quake was in NW direction, consistent with the strike of the fault,suggesting that the seismogenic structure of the quake should be the western branch of the fault zone. Despite of no signs of activeness in Late Quaternary along the fault zone,the Amojiang fault zone itself became a broad relative weak belt. Affected by the SE extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau matters, the Simao block where the epicenter is located moved southward. Although the Amojiang fault zone was in absence of evident ground activity during Late Quaternary, the zone itself formed broad weak structural belt. Under the circumstance of the NS-trending tectonic compression stresses,stresses concentration in local area could also give rise to new break and induce the middle-large earthquakes like the Amojiang M5.9 earthquake.Regionally,there are similar fault zones in structural conditions, such as the Mile-Shizong fault zone in southeastern Yunnan, along which there historically occurred 11 earthquakes of magnitude over M5.0. Therefore, the researchers should pay attention to the regional large faults which were not sub-surficially active in Late Quaternary, but still have potential seismic risk in the regional seismic risk assessment.
    2019  .  38(6):    967-976    [摘要](44)    [PDF](32)
  • Paleo- earthquake evidence and its quantitative evaluationin trenches:Exemplified by active strike-slip faults
    XU Xinyue, YUAN Zhaode, SHAO Yanxiu, LIU Jing, YAO Wenqian, LI Wenqiao and HAN Longfei
    Identification of paleo-earthquake events in trench depends on the interpretation of the structural deformations and associated sedimentary responses preserved in the sedimentary strata. Based on 88papers of paleoseismic studies of strike-slip fault published in China and abroad, the authors systematically summarized the empirical paleoseismic indicators, which includes vertical offset, upward termination of fault, growth strata, infilled fissures, angular unconformities, liquefactions, colluvial wedges and folds. The quality and frequency of these event indicators constitute the key to distinguishing paleoseismic events and event horizons. Ground deformation caused by non-structuralfactor and creepingis slightly different from eventindicators.In practice, the semiquantitative methodcan minimize the influence of non-seismic genetic deformations, reduce the risk of misestimating of paleoearthquake events, and give an objective event confidence level.
    2019  .  38(6):    977-992    [摘要](40)    [PDF](28)
  • The end of ductile shear deformation of Ningshan fault: Constraint from the activity time of Longbozi shear zone
    CHEN Chengsheng, LI Wei, WANG Yunpeng, LUO Zhengxian and HUANG Gang
    Three groups of ESR dating ages were obtained from different vein materials in Longbozi shear zone, i.e., 125.6~88.7Ma, 56.7~32.9Ma and 19.8~14.6Ma. The first type of vein materials sampled from schistosities and A-type fold cores marked the end of left-lateral shear deformation. It has been confirmed that the ductile deformation of Ningshan fault began from the early Late Triassic, and might have lasted to Early-Middle Jurassic. However, the result of the first type of vein material ESR dating shows that Ningshan fault left-lateral ductile shear effect lasted to Early Cretaceous. So Early Cretaceous was the critical period when the ductile shear deformation transformed to brittleness in Ningshan shear zone. Furthermore, Ningshan fault experienced Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic rapid-cooling phase, Late Jurassic-Cretaceous slow-cooling phase, and Paleocene-Quaternary rapid-cooling phase. The strain translation that occurred in the late slow-cooling phase suggests that Early Cretaceous also was the critical period of intracontinental deformation mechanism changing.
    2019  .  38(6):    993-1005    [摘要](43)    [PDF](34)
  • Evolution of Late Paleozoic sedimentary provenance of Lhasa block: Detrital zircons from Yongzhu Formation in Cuoqin area, Tibet
    YANG Yang, LIU Han, CUI Haojie, LI Jun, GOU Zhengbin and HU Zhizhong
    The Late Paleozoic is an important transition period for the geological evolution of the Lhasa block, so there are some disputes on key geological issues, such as the origin of the Lhasa block. In this paper, the Upper Carboniferous Yongzhu Formation in the Cuoqin region of Tibet was selected as the study object. The U-Pb dating data of detrital zircons in quartz sandstone show the peak ages of 523Ma and 920Ma. Based on a comparison with the Lhasa block and the detrital zircons formed before the Lhasa blockin the Late Carboniferous glacial period, the authors hold that the 920Ma agepeak of the Yongzhu Formation in the Lhasa block is more characteristic of the provenance on the Indian side of the Gondwana opening, and that the Nanqiangtang, Lhasa and Himalayan microlandmasses were significantly related before splitting. The source information of western Australia (about 1180Ma age peak) in the Laga and Laigu groups containing ice raft debris suggests that ice rafts from western Australia might have drifted to the Lhasa block through ocean currents and then deposited ice raft debris.
    2019  .  38(6):    1006-1017    [摘要](42)    [PDF](30)
  • Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic characteristics of Qushenla Formation volcanic rocks in the middle part of the Bangong Co-Nujiang suture, Tibet
    ZHANG Kaijiang, LIU Zhibo, LI Haifeng, GAO Ke, WANG Chao and WANG Jiaxing
    Mesozoic magmatic activities are widely distributed in the Bangong Co-Nujiang suture zone in Tibet, and it is important to study them for understanding the evolution of the Tethys Ocean. This paper reports the zircon U-Pb dating and zircon Hf isotope data of the andesites of the Qushenla Formation in the Dongkaco microcontinental block of the middle Bangong Co-Nujiang suture zone. The zircon 206Pb/238U weighted age of the andesites obtained from 21 sites is 110.3±0.7Ma. Zircon Hf isotope analysis shows that the zircon εHf(t) varies in the range of -5.66~1.05, and second stage Hf model ages are 1020~1448Ma, showing the characteristics of crust-mantle mixing. Considering regional tectonic sedimentary evolution and previous research results, the authors hold that the volcanic rocks of the Qushenla Formation were probably related to the slab break-offduring southward subduction of the Bangong Co-Nujiang oceanic crust in the Early Cretaceous, and were produced in an intraplate extensional environment. The magma was derived from the mixing of acidic melt formed by deep melting or remelting of mature crustal material in Nyainrong microcontinent with basic melt formed by partial melting of ancient lithospheric mantle.
    2019  .  38(6):    1018-1027    [摘要](56)    [PDF](48)
  • Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb age of the Permian radial diabase dyke from southern Xinyuan area, Western Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, and their geological significance
    FENG Bo, XUE Chunji, ZHAO Xiaobo, WANG Bing and ZHANG En
    The accretionary processes of the Western Tianshan Mountains is a hot topic but there is no consensus on the final closure of the Paleo-South Tianshan Ocean basin and subsequent post-collision process. The Permian radial diabase dyke exposed near the North Nalati Fault provides an opportunity for understanding these problems. The dyke shows a typical ophitic texture. The phenocryst is composed of plagioclase and pyroxene, and the substrate is mainly composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, chlorite and some other accessory minerals. The diabase dyke hassodium-rich, potassium-poor and peraluminous characteristics, and hence belongs to the calc-alkaline series. The dyke is characterized by depletion of Nb and Ta and enrichment of Rb, Th and La, and has mantle source material with positive εNd(t) values (+ 3.3~+ 3.8) and low initial Sr((879Sr/86Sr)i=0.70479~0.70548)). These geochemical characteristics are similar to those of the Carboniferous basalt of the study area, suggesting that the parental magma was formed by the interaction of asthenosphere and lithosphere. Zircon U-Pb dating of the dyke yielded an age of 280.4 ±3.6Ma. Combined with regional tectonic background, the authors hold that these Permian diabaseswere formed fromintraplate extension after the collision stage which was closely related to the oceanic lithosphere break-off.
    2019  .  38(6):    1028-1039    [摘要](45)    [PDF](35)
  • Genesis and tectonic significance of Late Permian Qimulaike intrusive rocks in the west of East Kunlun Mountains,Xinjiang
    CHEN Bangxue, XU Shengli, YANG Yousheng, ZHOU Nengwu and ZHU Zhixin
    Zircon U-Pb dating of Qimulaike granitic stocks shows that the age of the granodiorite is 274.6 ±1.2Ma and that of diatomite granitic diorite is 271.2±0.6Ma, implying the formation time of Late Permian. The geochemical characteristics of the rocks show that they have calc-alkaline and weak aluminum (A/CNK being 0.99~1.1)characteristics; the chondrite-normalized REE patterns show steepness on the left and smoothness on the rightwith weak negative anomaly of the δEu; the trace elements exhibit depletion of high field strong elements such as Nb, Ta, Ti and P.Combined with the structural environment, the authors hold that the rocks were formed in an island arc environment and belong to the I-type granite. In combination with regional tectonic evolution, it is shown that ancient Tethys in the Late Permian began subducting to the Tarim plate, while the mid-ocean ridge was still continuing to expand, indicating that the ancient Tethys at that time had been in the dying period.
    2019  .  38(6):    1040-1051    [摘要](47)    [PDF](33)
  • Oil and gas resources of shale formation orderly accumulation and coexistence as well as its prospecting significance: A case study of Chang 7 shale formation in Ordos Basin
    CUI Jingwei, ZHU Rukai, FAN Chunyi, LI Shixiang, MAO Zhiguo, LI Sen and ZHANG Zhongyi
    Shale system contains abundant unconventional oil and gas resources and has become a hot area of exploration and production. This system includes such resources as shale oil and gas, tight oil and gas, and oil shale. These unconventional resources are related to the organic-rich shale and are in orderly accumulation along with the maturity and coexistence in space. However, there is a blank in the systematic study of unconventional resources. Based on the shale system, the authors studied the world's oil and gas resources distribution and put forward the argument of the shale oil and gas resources orderly accumulation and coexistence in the shale system. Taking Chang 7 shale formation of Ordos basin system as an example, the authors used the shale oil and gas resources orderly accumulation method and divided the Chang 7 shale system resources into outcrop oil shale, moderate buried depth fracturing shale oil, moderate buried depth ICP shale oil, large buried depth shale gas and tight oil areas. Based on this understanding, the authors suggest stereoscopic exploration and development in the shale system, which will provide guidance for oil and gas resources exploration and development in the shale system.
    2019  .  38(6):    1052-1061    [摘要](40)    [PDF](31)
  • A quantitative method for integrated anomaly map of geochemical prospecting and application
    LI Huan, XU Guozhi, SUN Lu, LI Peng and DENG Yufei
    At the present stage, the integrated anomaly map is prepared on the basis of single element anomaly map, only the integrated anomaly range can be delineated qualitatively, the superposition contribution of outliers cannot be considered, and the synthetic anomaly cannot be evaluated quantitatively. It is found that there are many shortcomings in this kind of maps both in the form of surface representation and the application effect. In this paper, the authors defined the concept of "average contrast method" and put forward the idea and method of using "average contrast method" to compile integrated anomaly map. Based on the original analysis data, the authors used the average contrast degree to quantitatively express the integrated anomaly range, thus forming an integrated anomaly map of average contrast. The contrast result shows that the average contrast method is better than the additive contrast method and the integrated contrast method. The average anomaly integrated anomaly map is particularly suitable for 1:50000 geochemical exploration census data development research on account of small range and concentration center. It is suitable for accurate layout of the surface prospecting project and can save the cost of exploration as well as improve ore hit rate.
    2019  .  38(6):    1062-1070    [摘要](50)    [PDF](36)
  • The evaluation of uranium mineral resources potential in Greenland
    QUAN Xiaoying, LIU Chunhua and ZHAO Yuanyi
    Greenland is rich in mineral resources, but has not yet been developed. Greenland has gradually become a hot area for the exploitation of mineral resources. Greenland has a long history of mineral exploration and easy access to information, but Chinese references are very insufficient. The uranium deposits in China are mainly of magmatic type, hydrothermal type, sandstone type and carbon-silicon mudstone type, suggesting" small, poor and scattered" characteristics in general, and superlarge and large uranium deposits are rare. To alleviate the shortage of uranium resources in China and promote Chinese enterprises' "going out" policy in Greenland, the authors, based on the collection and translation as well as previous data, preliminarily evaluatedthe potential of uranium resources in Greenland. The results show that the six types of uranium deposits include sandstone type, conglomerate type, vein type, intrusive rock type, volcanic rock type and metasomatism rock type. The five potential areas were determined, which include three class A, one class B and one class C. The authors hold that Chinese companies should focus on class A potential areas. Greenland government's ban on uranium mining has been lifted, and the evaluation of uranium resources availability is good, which is worthy of Chinese Enterprises'attention.
    2019  .  38(6):    1071-1079    [摘要](45)    [PDF](73)

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